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Articles from 2019 In September

What’s new in extrusion at K 2019

What’s new in extrusion at K 2019

New system monitors actual melt temperature inside injection molding machines

New system monitors actual melt temperature inside injection molding machines

It’s often been asked in the plastics processing industry why no one has come up with a way to measure and monitor actual melt temperature during the molding process. Mike Durina, founder and President of Md Plastics Inc. (Columbiana, OH), has the answer with his newly invented Temp-Sense Melt Profiler II, which will be introduced at K 2019 in hall 13, stand B91-8.

Md Plastics ProfilerThe process of molding has changed considerably over the last decade. The use of servo valves, the implementation of electric injection and screw drives, expanded use of hot runner systems, more complex molds, more demanding part applications and the proliferation of new polymers have resulted in great strides being made in the plastics world. But these advances have also created a need for greater control over the molding process, explained Md Plastics. To overcome that challenge, several technologies have been developed, but none have addressed the most important variable to control—the state of the melted polymer—until now, according to the company.

The Temp-Sense Melt-Profiler II system is a stand-alone data-acquisition system that uses a unique micro-bead melt sensor to instantaneously read melt temperature during the molding process. Placing the patented Temp-Sense sensor in the nozzle body, end cap or last-to-fill cavity will enable processors to verify the thermal properties of the polymer at every stage of the process.

Common applications for the Temp-Sense Melt Profiler II include identifying batch-to-batch material inconsistencies; identifying mechanical changes in machine components such as bad heater bands or wearing of the screw, barrel or nozzle; and assisting in the setup process by replicating the melt data of previously molded good parts.

First patient receives polymer-based heart valve implant

First patient receives polymer-based heart valve implant

The first polymer-based aortic heart valve has been implanted in a patient, reported the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Canberra, Australia, on Sept. 29. The Tria heart valve, manufactured by medical device manufacturer Foldax in Salt Lake City, combines a patented design with CSIRO's biopolymer material, LifePolymer. The valve reportedly can last decades without calcification, risk of clotting or causing damage to red blood cells.

Tria plastic heart valve

The surgery conducted at Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, MI, is part of an FDA early feasibility study for the treatment of aortic valve disease. The recipient is a 68-year-old man who, the hospital said, was an ideal candidate “because he was physically fit and an avid runner.” The surgery was performed on July 30 and the patient feels so good “he wants to run a marathon,” said the hospital.

Aortic valve disease is a congenital or age-related condition where the valve between the main pumping chamber of the heart and the body’s main artery stops functioning properly. The World Health Organization estimates that heart valve disease affects around 30 million people in the general population of industrialized countries.

Valve implants typically are made from animal tissues or, in the case of mechanical valves, titanium and carbon. The Tria heart valve is the first one made from a polymer that has been implanted in a human patient.

“This is a true example of Aussie innovation going global, with our team in Melbourne designing, developing and scaling-up the new polymer," said CSIRO project leader, Dr Thilak Gunatillake." Foldax now manufactures the Tria heart valve for patients around the world in Salt Lake City, Utah."

Foldax Executive Chairman Ken Charhut said the world-first surgery represented a major milestone for the company. "Tria heart valves are revolutionizing the industry as the first and only biopolymer heart valve platform using LifePolymer material, eliminating the use of animal tissue," said Charhut. "What makes this so different from other heart valves is that we were able to design the valve to mimic the native valve."

The next-generation polymer has other potential uses such as coatings for stents, vascular grafts or synthetic membranes for repair of ear drum ruptures, added the CSIRO press release. The project team is in discussion with potential industry and research partners to apply the technology to other products.

CSIRO was also behind the development of Elast-Eon, which is used in cardiac pacemakers implanted in more than 10 million people worldwide, as well as polymer bank notes and extended-wear contact lenses.

LivaNova Enrolls 1st Patient in RECOVER Depression Treatment Study

Pixabay LivaNova Enrolls 1st Patient in RECOVER Depression Treatment Study

LivaNova has enrolled the first patient in a study that will evaluate its Symmetry Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The London-based company’s RECOVER study is being held in accordance with the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) National Coverage Determination as part of its Coverage with Evidence Development Program.

The objectives of the RECOVER study are to determine whether active VNS Therapy treatment is superior to a no stimulation control in producing a reduction in baseline depressive symptom severity. The study will include up to 500 unipolar and up to 500 bipolar patients at as many as 100 sites in the U.S.

RECOVER is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with a follow-up duration of at least one year. The CMS study framework also includes the possibility to extend to a prospective longitudinal study.

While VNS Therapy received CE Mark in 2001 and FDA approval in 2005 for the treatment of depression, last month, FDA approved Symmetry as the latest VNS Therapy System for Depression.

Symmetry is indicated for the adjunctive long-term treatment of chronic or recurrent depression for patients 18 years of age or older who are experiencing a major depressive episode and have not had an adequate response to four or more adequate antidepressant treatments.

"Symmetry is the first and only FDA-approved implantable device specifically designed for depression that is difficult to treat,” Jonathan Walker, Vice President of Depression at LivaNova, said in a release. “We are pleased that the latest model of our VNS Therapy System, Symmetry, is now available as an option for patients.”

Throughout the past few years, LivaNova has strengthened its position in Neuromodulation. In 2017, the company sold its cardiac rhythm management business for $190 million, so it could focus on its neuromodulation unit. A month after shedding the CRM Unit to MicroPort, LivaNova acquired ImThera for $225 million. The San Diego-based company has developed an implantable device to stimulate multiple tongue muscles via the hypoglossal nerve, which opens the airway while a patient is sleeping.

Boston Scientific’s Shining Moment at TCT

Pixabay Boston Scientific’s Shining Moment at TCT

Perhaps one of Boston Scientific’s greatest moments at the 31st Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), the annual scientific symposium of the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, came when the company announced primary endpoint results from the EVOLVE Short DAPT clinical trial.

The Marlborough, MA-based company said the trial evaluated its Synergy Bioabsorbable Polymer (BP) stent and that the EVOLVE is first prospective study initiated in the U.S. to examine the safety of a shortened duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients at high risk for bleeding.

Results and demonstrated that a three-month regimen of DAPT is non-inferior to a 12-month or longer regimen in patients with an increased risk of bleeding after being treated with the Synergy.

During TCT, Ian Meredith, Global CMO and Executive Vice President for Boston Scientific, spoke with MD+DI about the significance of the EVOLVE Short DAPT study.

“I think the trial that defines [our presence at TCT] is the EVOLVE Short DAPT Study,” Meredith, told MD+DI. “The reason this is a landmark for us is … because the Synergy stent was designed for rapid healing and rapid endothelialization and at some point, in time, we could prove the concept that healing meant shorter durations of dual antiplatelet therapy. So, the question that remained, which was part of the original design principle almost 10 years ago, was could you do the stages with a shortened period of dual antiplatelet therapy with impunity. And in fact, that’s what EVOLVE Short DAPT did.”

Patients within the trial were implanted with at least one SYNERGY BP stent and considered at high risk for bleeding after meeting at least one of the criteria such as: age of 75 or older with the risk of longer-term DAPT deemed greater than the benefit, a history of stroke, renal insufficiency or failure, the need for chronic anticoagulation therapy or history of major bleeding in the prior 12 months. The co-primary endpoints of the study assessed the rate of death or myocardial infarction (MI) and the rate of stent thrombosis between three and 15 months. Both primary endpoints were successfully met.

“On the basis of these results, [Boston Scientific] will apply for a specific label or high-bleeding risk indication [for Synergy],” he said. “We’ll go back to FDA and look to get a label indication that says this is an appropriate product to be used with short DAPT in patients in the U.S., who are at high-bleeding risk.”

Boston Scientific originally received a nod from FDA for the Synergy stent in 2015. Early in Synergy’s commercial life, the stent drew comparisons to Abbott Laboratories Absorb stent.

But the two stents are as different as night and day.

Synergy is a platinum chromium metal stent upon which there is a tiny-ultra thin layer of polymer, that is sprayed onto the surface,” Meredith said. “That polymer contains the drug. The drug dilutes out of the polymer and the polymer itself biodegrades so that the final thing left in place is a platinum chromium metal stent.”

He added, “With the Absorb, the stent frame was made with a bioresorbable material and it biodegraded and disappeared,” he said. “The difference was those bioabsorbable platforms didn’t have much radial strength – scaffolding – so the strut had to be thick. Because they were so thick they raised the risk of clot-forming inside the vessel… also, there was a higher rate of revascularization.”

Abbott would go on to discontinue Absorb after disappointing sales and mixed clinical results for the device.

Hope springs eternal as another Manufacturing Day rolls around

Hope springs eternal as another Manufacturing Day rolls around

Manufacturing Day logoFriday, Oct. 4, brings another Manufacturing Day celebration. Manufacturing Day has become a day not just to celebrate an industry and promote manufacturing’s benefits to the economy, but to attract young people into careers that provide stability and good pay. At least that’s what we hope.

It appears that people in the United States are a bit skittish about pursuing manufacturing careers. They’re not sure that manufacturing really is a stable, long-term opportunity. According to a recent survey by the Brookings Institution, 58% of those surveyed nationwide see manufacturing as vital to the U.S. economy, but only 17% are very confident in its future.

That could be part of the reason why the plastics industry is having a difficult time recruiting and retaining a skilled workforce.

Manufacturing remains a critical part of the U.S. economy. According to the U.S. census, and noted in the Brookings survey summary, around 11.1 million workers are employed in the sector, and it generates about $5.4 trillion in economic activity annually. Yet it faces significant headwinds. “The June IHS Markit Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index fell to its worst reading since 2009, and there have been recent declines in the Institute for Supply Management’s Purchasing Managers Index. There is also concern due to the 25% tariffs President Donald Trump has imposed on Chinese goods and his threats to increase tariffs on other nations,” said the summary.

Researchers at the Brookings Institution conducted an online national poll of 2,001 adult internet users between June 16 and 18, 2019. Responses were weighted by gender, age and region to match the demographics of the national internet population, as estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey.

Reflecting the important role manufacturing plays in the U.S. economy, the survey asked how people feel about the sector. Fifty-eight percent believe manufacturing is very important to the American economy, 14% think it is somewhat important, 6% feel it is not very important and 22% are unsure.

There were significant differences by age, with 71% of people over the age of 55 saying they believe manufacturing is very important, whereas only 45% of those aged 18 to 34 feel that way.

When it came to gender, there wasn’t much difference: 61% of men and 56% of women consider manufacturing to be very important. Geographically, it’s the middle of the country that feels strongest about manufacturing, with 61% of respondents from the South and Midwest saying manufacturing is “very important.” Fifty-three percent of folks in the Northeast said manufacturing is very important, as did 55% of respondents in the West.

When asked overall how positive or negative they feel toward manufacturing, 58% say they are positive, 10% are negative and 34% are unsure. The poll also inquired about feelings regarding the future. Only 17% said they are very confident about the future of manufacturing while 48% are somewhat confident, 14% are not confident at all and 21% are unsure.

There were some differences by background in answering that question. People in the Midwest (19%) are most likely to be very confident about the future of manufacturing, compared to 14% in the Northeast. Women (14%) are less likely to say they are very confident about manufacturing, compared to 21% of men. Forty-seven percent would encourage young people to get a job in the manufacturing sector, 20% would not and 33% are unsure.

When asked about the biggest barrier to the manufacturing sector, 23% cite government regulations, 21% say poorly trained workers, 14% name high taxes, 8% claim energy costs and 34% are unsure.

More than a third (37%) of the respondents say news coverage of manufacturing has been negative, 10% felt it has been positive and 54% are unsure. This week’s UAW strike against GM can’t paint a pretty picture for people looking at a career. The news media say the strike is mostly over job security and wages. Even with 55 facilities in 19 states, GM has made moves to Mexico and closed U.S. plants. The average wage for an assembly line worker is about $45,000, including profit sharing.

Looking at stock share pricing is an eye opener when you compare companies that actually make things, like GM ($37.21/share on Sept. 16) and General Electric ($9.38/share on Sept. 16) compared to $1,807 for a share of Amazon, which only sells things others make. Even Twitter beat out GM and GE, at $42.76 per share on the day of this writing.

It’s no wonder people don’t have confidence in manufacturing as a long-term career.

I noticed in the Brookings survey that there were a lot of “unsure” responses to the questions—it’s that group of people who need to be educated about manufacturing to win them over, and that’s what Manufacturing Day is geared to do—educate parents and young people about careers in manufacturing. Show them the modern factory floor with automation (no, it’s not a job killer—automation is a job creator), computers everywhere and very fulfilling jobs to perform.

Many plastics processors, mold makers and machinery manufacturers will open their doors on Oct. 4 to showcase manufacturing and the career opportunities available. One of those is Wittmann Battenfeld, which will hold an open house at its campus in Torrington, CT. The company is expecting as many as 150 students from several local middle and high schools to attend. Kevin Witkos, Connecticut State Senator, is also scheduled to appear. 

The Society of Plastics Engineers’ PlastiVan will be at the event to educate kids on chemistry, manufacturing, sustainability and plastics applications through fun, hands-on science experiments.

“We look forward to hosting area students to show them not only what we do here at Wittmann Battenfeld, but to educate them on the importance of plastics and the potential employment opportunities that are available to them as they enter the workforce,” said David Preusse, President of Wittmann Battenfeld Inc.   

As an industry under assault, we need to present the positive face of plastics and the great careers the industry offers, along with the tremendous benefits plastics have given to society over the past 100 years. Let’s hope that people take advantage of this special day to learn more about plastics and manufacturing and what it can contribute to the economy and to an individuals’ livelihoods.

Empowering Patients to Take Care of Their Hearts

Empowering Patients to Take Care of Their Hearts
Dave Albert, MD, founder and chief medical officer at AliveCor; and Ranndy Kellogg, president and CEO at Omron Healthcare.

Hypertension affects about 103 million Americans, according to the American Heart Association (AHA). Atrial fibrillation (AFib), which is often associated with hypertension and could affect up to 6 million people per CDC statistics, can be asymptomatic, so patients may be unaware they have it. The CDC also reports that more than 600,000 Americans die each year from heart disease, and coronary artery disease is the most common type of such disease. Also impacting the heart is diabetes—and more than 100 million Americans suffer from it, the CDC reported.

“Heart disease is the number one killer,” Dave Albert, MD, founder and chief medical officer at AliveCor, told MD+DI, adding that the above-mentioned conditions are “all interrelated.”

AliveCor is working to prevent the impact of heart disease by enabling patients to monitor themselves through portable EKG monitors. Earlier this year the company earned new indications, making it the only consumer-cleared device with the ability to detect the three most common heart arrhythmias (bradycardia, tachycardia, and AFib) plus normal sinus rhythm. AliveCor has also partnered with Omron Healthcare, known for its patient-friendly blood pressure monitors, to incorporate its EKG technology into Omron Complete for at-home monitoring of both blood pressure and EKG in one device—described as the first of its kind. The two companies have also partnered to archive and analyze such results in the smartphone app KardiaMobile.

With such opportunities for patients to monitor heart health, Albert and Ranndy Kellogg, president and CEO at Omron Healthcare, hope to eliminate heart attack and stroke. Albert and Kellogg will discuss efforts to empower patients, their recent achievements, and more in a “fireside chat” on October 24 at MD&M Minneapolis. They will also provide an inside look at how the two companies work together and offer inspiration to other medical device innovators seeking to tackle healthcare’s biggest challenges.

Albert and Kellogg advocate for monitoring and prevention. “The healthcare industry does a good job of dealing with these conditions once they have manifested, but it costs too much,” Albert said. And “treatment is like trying to get the horse back in the barn once it’s out.”

Instead, “take care of your heart,” Kellogg urges. Adds Albert: “Take care of your body and it will take care of you.”

A graduate of Harvard College and Duke University Medical School, Albert is a physician, inventor, and serial entrepreneur who has been issued 61 U.S. patents (with more pending) over the last 30 years. In addition to being founder and chief medical officer of AliveCor, Albert previously started Corazonix Corp. (sold to Arrhythmia Research Technology) and Data Critical (sold to GE). He has been a regular faculty member at the major cardiology scientific meetings (AHA, ACC, HRS, TCT).

Before serving as Omron Healthcare’s president and CEO, Kellogg was COO and led an initiative to transform Omron into a more digitally focused company. He now leads Omron’s “Going for Zero” mission to eliminate heart attack and stroke. And in addition to collaborating with AliveCor and sitting on its board of directors, Kellogg is also on the board of HealthCorps, a non-profit founded by Dr. Mehmet and Lisa Oz, and he is a founding member of the Healthcare Council of Chicago, a collaboration designed to advance Chicago’s profile as a hub of healthcare innovation and transformation.

In addition to the fireside chat with Kellogg and Albert at 11 AM on October 24, Kellogg will present the keynote, “Going for Zero: Bringing Technology Closer to Patients,” on October 24  8:30 AM - 9:10 AM.

Wow! Even Our Shirts Are Getting Smarter!

Pixabay Wow! Even Our Shirts Are Getting Smarter!

Researchers are developing a smart shirt that -together with a mobile app – can reliably measure breathing in healthy people while carrying out a range of everyday activities.

This means they can now test out the smart shirts with patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If successful, they hope this will allow doctors to monitor patients remotely for early signs that their condition is getting worse. The research was presented by Denise Mannée, a technical physician and PhD candidate at Radboud University Medical Centre in The Netherlands.

In a release she said: "COPD is a growing problem with around 64 million people suffering with the condition worldwide. When patients suffer an increase in their symptoms, such as coughing and breathlessness, they need to be monitored more closely.  Symptoms first occur during daily activities like climbing stairs and housework, but respiration is hard to monitor in such conditions. This is traditionally done in the clinic with equipment such as an exercise bike, facemask, and computer. The equipment is not very practical for measuring everyday activity.

The smart shirt, called the Hexoskin, senses how the fabric stretches when the wearer's chest expands and contracts and uses these measurements to gauge the volume of air inhaled and exhaled. It also records heart rate and movement. Mannée and her colleagues asked a group of 15 healthy volunteers to wear a smart shirt while doing everyday activities including lying down, sitting, standing, climbing stairs and vacuuming.

At the same time, the volunteers also wore the equipment traditionally used to measure breathing that includes a face mask and a bulky backpack. The volunteers repeated the tasks wearing both pieces of equipment, to generate a second set of data.

The researchers now plan to repeat tests on the smart shirts with COPD patients, but they believe the technology might also help in other respiratory conditions such as asthma, cystic fibrosis or after transplantation.

Coating Advances Lithium-Metal Battery Research

Researchers have provided new promise for developing a lithium-metal battery with commercial viability with the invention of a new coating that would make these types of batteries safer and able to last longer.

A team of researchers at Stanford University invented the coating, which helps overcome some of the key defects that have relegated these types of batteries—which have enormous potential for energy storage—to the laboratory.

battery, battery coating, Stanford University, Lithium-Metal Battery, fire danger

Stanford University PhD students David Mackanic, left, and Zhiao Yu in front of a battery tester they developed for lithium-metal batteries they developed using a new coating. Yu is holding a dish of already tested cells that they call the “battery graveyard.” (Image source: Mark Golden)

Lithium-metal batteries have a great risk of catching fire and also a short lifespan, which doesn’t make them viable for commercial use despite their being a good candidate for electric-vehicle (EV) batteries. Indeed, these batteries can hold at least a third more power per pound as lithium-ion batteries and also are significantly lighter because they use lithium rather than the heavier graphite for their positive charge.

To solve issues hindering the development and use of lithium-metal batteries, a team at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory developed a coating that not only extends the battery’s life, but also deals with a key issue that can lead to their flammability. Zhenan Bao, a professor of chemical engineering at Stanford, and Yi Cui, professor of materials science and engineering and photon science at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, led the research.

“The capacity of conventional lithium-ion batteries has been developed almost as far as it can go,” Stanford PhD student David Mackanic said in a press statement. “So, it’s crucial to develop new kinds of batteries to fulfill the aggressive energy density requirements of modern electronic devices.”

One key problem with lithium-metal batteries is that they tend to develop tiny, needle-like structures called dendrites over their lifespan that pierce the separator between the battery’s positive and negative sides. These dendrites can create a short circuit within the battery’s flammable liquid, as well as just degrade the battery in general.

Avoiding the Explosion

To prevent dendrites from forming, researchers developed a coating that creates a network of molecules to deliver uniformly charged lithium ions to the electrode, they said. This prevents the occurrence of undesirable chemical reactions that typical for these batteries, researchers said.

The molecules also reduce a chemical buildup on the anode, which is one of the key reasons for the degradation of the battery’s ability to deliver power, said Zhiao Yu, another Stanford PhD student who worked on the research.

“Our new coating design makes lithium-metal batteries stable and promising for further development,” he said in a press statement.

Researchers tested their coating on the anode—the positively charged end of a lithium-metal battery--which is where dendrites typically form, and then combined specially coated anodes with other commercially available components to create a fully operational battery.

After 160 cycles, the cells the team developed still delivered 85 percent of the power that was generated during their first cycle, researchers said. In comparison, typical lithium-metal cells deliver about 30 percent after the same amount of cycles, which renders them nearly useless even if they don’t explode.

Researchers published a paper on their work in the journal Joule.

The team plans to continue to refine the design and development of the coating to increase capacity retention and testing cells over more cycles, Cui said.

Though ultimately researchers hope the coating can be used to develop lithium-metal batteries for EVs, “commercialization would likely start with consumer electronics to demonstrate the battery’s safety first,” he said in a press statement.

Elizabeth Montalbano is a freelance writer who has written about technology and culture for more than 20 years. She has lived and worked as a professional journalist in Phoenix, San Francisco and New York City. In her free time she enjoys surfing, traveling, music, yoga and cooking. She currently resides in a village on the southwest coast of Portugal.

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How to get the most out of your R&D budget

How to get the most out of your R&D budget

Here are some key considerations to keep in mind to have successful, profitable outcomes from your research and development (R&D) initiatives. This assumes that you have an R&D budget. However, when companies are in a growth period, they sometimes forget that it’s important to lay the groundwork that will sustain your growth in the future. Don’t let that happen to you.PTI R and D research and development  Adobe image 103836035

Getting started

The first step is to clearly define your initial goals. You can get the ball rolling by setting specific goals (such as developing an innovative product) or by outlining an overall mission that fuels your team’s creativity.

When defining goals, set both long- and short-term objectives. Short-term goals (three to six months) will have more of an “immediate” payback. Longer-term goals can last a year or more. Goal management is absolutely critical to success.

Pay attention to results. The lack of meaningful output can decrease motivation. If this happens, it may be a good idea to swap out/in new team members to inject fresh ideas and excitement.

Set a budget and name a project manager

A good rule of thumb for R&D is to spend 3 to 5% of annual revenue.  It is critically important to keep track of costs so that you know how much to eventually charge for your innovation so that the investment becomes profitable. You must also take into consideration how much a customer would be willing to pay for your development.

It is also a good idea to perform a risk assessment with all stakeholders (including those who are not on the R&D team) to weigh in on what will work and is worth the investment.

You also need to assign a project manager to manage the budget and keep the team on track. In addition to keeping the team focused on the goal, he or she will be responsible for monitoring progress and making sure the budget is on target.

Determining which projects to work on

Determine what you can handle and don’t shoot for the moon unless you have the budget and personnel to achieve the goal. Failure to do so will result in unnecessary expenditures, as well as lost motivation when goals are consistently missed. Don’t be afraid to shut a project down. Not every path you embark on will result in a win.PTI RandD PQ1

Equally as critical is to make sure that the projects you are working on are sellable and fit into your business model. You want to be sure that the product or service that you are creating is compatible with your current offerings so you will be able to market it effectively and be profitable.

If you are improving an existing product/service, make sure to take into consideration the return on investment (ROI) by projecting the time/cost/effort impact.

If generating new intellectual property is your goal, you need to determine if it could potentially be worth more than the cost of development.

Executing project development

Make sure to document your development steps. There may be stumbles, however you will need to clearly understand the development path to ensure that the product/service can be recreated efficiently.

Documentation and access to the process needs to be created. It needs to be searchable and accessible by your internal colleagues in order to share the learning. This approach can motivate the team with fresh input or can inspire a different team project. 

Managing finances/resources

Use existing technology and/or equipment as much as possible. However, sometimes it will make sense to go outside of your organization for assistance with certain services to shorten timelines and/or expenses. You should also budget for failure. Not all ideas will bear fruit. Be sure there is room in the budget when an ROI is not expected.


Sumit Mukherjee of PTIAuthor: Sumit Mukherjee is the chief technology officer of PTI. He has 25 years of experience in preform and container design, materials characterization, process simulation and modeling, and finite element analysis (FEA) for package performance prediction.

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