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Medical fluid bags market projected to exceed $4.4 billion by 2024

Medical fluid bags market projected to exceed $4.4 billion by 2024

IV bagThe market for medical fluid bags is set to exceed $4.4 billion by 2024, according to research from Global Market Insights (GMI; Selbyville, DE).

The drainage bag segment dominated the industry in 2017 with revenue of $867.5 million, and it will extend its dominance through the forecast period owing to applications in various surgical procedures, according to GMI. The breast-milk storage bag segment is projected to grow at the fastest rate, achieving approximately 7.1% CAGR during the forecast period. 

Of the materials typically used to fabricate medical bags—PVC, polyolefins, thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) and thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs)—TPEs are projected to grow at a robust 6.8% CAGR owing to their benefits over traditional PVC bags. Concerns over plasticizers, particularly DEHP, will hamper growth of PVC compounds in this market, said the report, which adds that TPEs offer greater elongation, improved tear resistance and more lightweighting opportunities than PVC bags. 

Polyolefins accounted for the largest market share with a revenue of $925.2 million in 2017. This material will continue to experience growth in medical fluid bag applications because of its thermal stability, low levels of leaching and extraction levels, and its organoleptic properties, according to GMI. 

Europe dominated the medical fluid bags market with a revenue of $901 million in 2017 and is projected to grow at a significant rate over the forecast period. Asia/Pacific will witness the fastest growth rate, achieving 6.9% growth during the forecast period owing to the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases.

The Medical Fluid Bags Market report provides historical data coverage from 2013 to 2017 and growth projections through 2024. Profiles of leading companies in this product segment are included in the competitive landscape report. For more information, go to the GMI website.

Do Leadless Pacemakers Really Have Fewer Complications in Patients?

Courtesy of Cleveland Clinic Do Leadless Pacemakers Really Have Fewer Complications in Patients?

A Cleveland Clinic-led study shows that leadless pacemakers have fewer mid-term and short-term complications than traditional transvenous pacemakers. The study was recently published in Heart Rhythm.

“The issue with traditional pacemakers, which have been around in mainstream use since the 1960s, is that the greatest source of complications come from the incisional access that we need to create a pocket for the pacemaker,” Daniel Cantillon, M.D., research director for Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing at Cleveland Clinic and lead author of the study, told MD+DI. “If you look at the experience with traditional pacemaker complications from the 80s, 90s, and 2000s there really haven’t been any major improvements in those complication rates because we’re limited by the fact that we’re using incisional access and we’re still using wires…”

Cantillon pointed out that the leads could break, dislodge or the pocket incisions could gain infections themselves. However, a leadless pacemaker is delivered into the heart from a catheter that is introduced from a blood vessel in the leg. It doesn’t require an incision and there are no wires used.

Cleveland Clinic’s multi-center study compared short- and mid-term complications between 718 patients receiving the Nanostim leadless pacemaker and 1,436 patients with conventional (transvenous) pacemakers.

“One of the limitations of the study was that it wasn’t a prospective head-to head comparison of patients getting leadless devices vs. patients who were getting transvenous devices,” Cantillon said.

Instead, Cleveland Clinic's analysis looked at claims data from other studies and trials.

Leadless pacemaker patient data was taken from the LEADLESS II trial, a prospective, nonrandomized, multi-center clinical trial. Transvenous patient data were obtained from Truven Health MarketScan claims databases for patients implanted with single-chamber pacemakers between April 2010 and March 2014 and more than 1 year of pre-implant enrollment data. Statistical methods were used to match patients between the two groups to compare the outcomes of a leadless vs. traditional pacemaker with other key clinical variables being equal.

At one month, the study found that patients receiving one type the Nanostim Leadless pacemaker overall had fewer complications (5.8% vs. 9.4%). Leadless pacemakers completely eliminated lead and pocket complications, including infection. By comparison, complications among traditional pacemaker recipients included lead complications (3.62%), pocket complications (0.42%) and infection (1.74%).

There were no significant differences between the groups in regard to rates of vascular complications, electrode dislodgement and generator complications. However, the study did find that those receiving leadless pacemakers had an increased risk of developing pericardial effusion – bleeding between the heart and the sac that surrounds the heart (1.53% vs. 0.35% for traditional). These complications were uncommon, but serious, and sometimes required surgery.

“There are a couple of things to keep in mind about that, is that the LEADLESS II technology looked at generation one technology,” Cantillon said. “So all the operators including myself that were involved in the LEADLESS II trial were seeing all of this for the first time. We actually did an analysis where we looked at the operator specific complication rates with a new technology before and after 10 implants and we found that basically after 10 implants the complication rates for the leadless device were cut in half.”

He added, “when you have a new technology and physicians that are seeing it for the first time, operator experience made a difference in reducing complications. We hope – and we don’t know this to be true yet - that the future generations of the leadless technology that are in development, that with the combination of operator experience and new technology can drive down that difference that we saw in that one category.”

The Nanostim leadless pacemaker falls under Abbott Laboratories’ umbrella. The company picked up the device through the $25 billion merger with St. Jude Medical that closed in 2017. St. Jude Medical gained access to the leadless pacemaker when it acquired Sunnyvale, CA-based Nanostim for $123.5 million in 2013.

“Right now leadless pacemakers are here to stay,” Cantillon said. “But the major problem and the major limitation is that the current leadless pacemaker that we have available is just a single chamber ventricular-only pacemaker. That accounts for about 10% of all the U.S. population that use pacemakers. The other 90% are not served by this technology. For those patients traditional transvenous pacemakers must be used.”

He noted that this study data could help push the industry to eventually look at getting an expanded indication to reach the 90% of patients that were not using leadless pacemakers.

This medical products company believes single-use devices should be safe, clinically effective . . . and sustainable

This medical products company believes single-use devices should be safe, clinically effective . . . and sustainable

We have expectations of efficacy and safety in medical products that are brought to market; should we also factor in sustainability? Absolutely, says Rob Chase, founder and President of NewGen Surgical, a medical products company based in San Rafael, CA.

Newton Surgical's sustainable skin stapler
NewGen Surgical's skin stapler is made with 69% plant-based material. 

Single-use medical devices and surgical products have dramatically improved medical care by minimizing opportunities for hospital-acquired infections and cross contamination and, in many instances, have reduced cost. Polymers are used overwhelmingly in the fabrication of disposable devices and that has led to a proliferation of plastics in medical-care facilities. To some, that's a problem.

"The medical device industry needs to continue to innovate and create products that save lives and shorten recovery times with less pain, but it also needs to focus on embedding sustainability throughout the healthcare continuum," says Chase. “This includes focusing on plastic disposable products, which are used in the millions and are destined for landfill or incineration.” 

Chase characterizes his approach as smart sustainable design—a “deep dive” into thinking about the resources we are using in healthcare and how the supply chain impacts the environment. “There is a growing need in the industry for products that offer performance, clinical efficacy and economic value, but with the added benefit of being environmentally more sustainable,” says Chase.

Thus far, his company has developed two medical product lines that meet those criteria. The NGS35W skin stapler is made with 69% plant-based material that results in a 67% reduction in energy used during the production process and eliminates more than 500 pounds of plastic waste for every 10,000 skin staplers used, according to the company. NewGen Surgical also has developed a sustainable needle counter box, eliminating 93% of the plastic waste associated with a product used in nearly every operating room procedure. Both products are Class I devices and are disposed of in the sharps bin, like conventional plastic devices of this kind. “There is no change in work flow for the surgical staff in using a NewGen Surgical sustainably designed product,” notes Chase.

The company also has developed sustainable packaging for surgical kits that, like their other product lines, can withstand EtO sterilization and have durability and strength properties that are similar to currently available products.

Chase, it should be noted, is not a zero-tolerance guy when it comes to the use of plastics. The company incorporates ABS medical-grade plastic where needed for functionality and performance. He recognizes that plastic has “enabled the advancement, development and production of many breakthrough medical devices.” But he strongly supports the use of sustainable alternatives, when feasible, especially in product categories that encompass millions of single-use disposable products. 

Rob Chase, NewGen Surgical
Rob Chase, founder and President of NewGen Surgical.

“There are many single-use products in hospitals that can be redesigned through the lens of sustainability,” says Chase. “Surgical products that are intricate in design with tight tolerances may be better candidates for traditional medical-grade plastics,” he notes . . . at least for now. The continued development of biopolymers and other environmentally preferable materials may change that equation. “Products designed for the operating room have multiple design criteria, must be of high clinical performance, and be sterilizable. However, if the design criteria can be met using sustainable materials, you offer a solution to hospitals that increasingly connect healthy communities with the environmental impact of the products they use,” says Chase.

GreenHealth Exchange, a group purchasing organization (GPO), agrees. NewGen Surgical recently signed its first GPO agreement with the group, which is dedicated to bringing sustainably designed products to hospitals. “Doctors and nurses are responding. They appreciate a product that is in line with their own values as well as the hospital's mission to care for patients knowing that the foundation of all health is a healthy environment.”

And if you’re wondering if there is a trade-off in pricing, as is often the case with biobased alternatives to conventional plastic products, Chase is ready with a response. “Our goal is to be price competitive with conventional products. However, like all new innovation, prices come down as adoption and volumes increase. Right now we are pretty close in pricing and we're well on our way in volume,” says Chase.

Weekly resin report: Spot polyethylene prices drop by as much as $0.02/lb

Weekly resin report: Spot polyethylene prices drop by as much as $0.02/lb

The flow of spot offers in the resin marketplace increased substantially last week. While a high volume of resin changed hands, much of the material simply accumulated and is currently still around, reports the PlasticsExchange (Chicago) in its Market Update.

True to form, the majority of transactions involved polyethylene (PE). Although some grades are still tight, overall availability has swelled to the highest level of the year. Despite at least one or two producers reiterating their intent to implement their thrice-failed $0.03/lb PE increase, the PlasticsExchange believes that PE contracts will roll flat, at best, in June. PE was steady to lower this past week, and film grades, which became more accessible, lost as much as two cents.

Cool Design
Image courtesy Cool Design/

Spot polypropylene (PP) improved, and while there was a soft undertone, prices managed to hold steady. PP contracts will follow PGP contracts higher in June, with perhaps an added bump attributed to margin enhancement. 

The PE supply situation has improved with better availability seen for previously snug resins, such as low-density and high-molecular-weight PE for film, sending some spot prices down by as much as $0.02/lb. This week, which marks the end of the month, quarter and first half of 2018, is expected be a busy one.

Perhaps there will be an added boost from processors looking to secure material ahead of the Fourth of July. The massive logistics challenges that the industry has seen will be exacerbated by short-staffed offices and warehouses and truckers primarily looking for lanes that bring them close to home, adding to an already difficult freight environment.

In the contract market, some producers reaffirmed their intent to raise PE $0.03/lb in June; however, spot market pricing does not support the increase. Perhaps the timely letters were issued as an attempt to simply hold the market flat rather than acquiesce to a decrease, for which many downstream processors have been clamoring, writes the PlasticsExchange. 

Spot PP trading was good, but it was off the rampant pace seen in recent weeks. With spot monomer easing the upward cost-push ahead in July, processors seem content to procure minimal quantities and wait for relief, unless immediate needs arise. In the meantime, resellers stocked with packaged inventory are still doling out material at top dollar when the orders come in.

On the supply side, offers were plentiful but levels were still elevated—a better flow of mostly off-grade railcars pelted the secondary market, and prices were a nervous steady to lower. Resellers also have prime railcars to sell at seemingly high prices, which is a good indication that demand has fallen short of forecasts. Since PGP monomer for the second half of 2018 is now priced well below prompt levels, PP importers will think twice about bringing in large quantities of speculative resin without orders in hand, according to the PlasticsExchange. If so, this could potentially lead to another supply/demand imbalance in the late summer and early autumn. 

Read the full Market Update on the PlasticsExchange website.

Dare to 'Dreem': J&J Invests in Sleep-Focused Medtech Startup

Dreem Dare to 'Dreem': J&J Invests in Sleep-Focused Medtech Startup

A neurotech startup that dared to dream has attracted the attention of a major investor.

Johnson & Johnson Development Corp. (JJDC), J&J's investment arm, led a $35 million investment to help San Francisco, CA-based Dreem further develop its headband brain monitor designed to track sleep and improve peoples sleep.

According to Dreem CEO Hugo Mercier, 30% of the world's population is not currently sleeping effectively. He said if everyone in the world were able to get better, more quality rest every night, "we'd unleash opportunity like none other."

"Our productivity, creativity, humility as a global community could dramatically increase," Mercier said. "Our mission at Dreem is to help the world make that happen. We want to become the accessible, universally effective solution for everyone on the planet suffering from a poor sleep quality."

It's no simple undertaking, Mercier admits, but the young executive says Dreem is armed with everything it needs to make the company's dream a reality. This, he said, includes "incredibly talented people, years of research at our disposal, tenacity and passion, and now a powerful set of new investors.

The new funding round is expected to help the company further develop its flagship product, the Dreem headband, to make it as accessible as possible. The startup also wants to use the funds to develop new technological breakthroughs to significantly improve the experience, such as making the device as discreet as possible. The company said also plans to use the investment to grow its workforce by nearly 30% by the end of the year (today Dreem has a team of 70).

The company previously raised a total of $22 million. Investors in that round included billionaire French entrepreneur Xavier Niel; Laurent Alexandre, MD, an entrepreneur, and biotech investor; and French insurance company MAIF. With additional investment from JJDC and Bpifrance, Dreem said it has raised nearly $60 million in less than four years.

Viking Plastics acquires automotive supplier Genesis Plastics and Engineering

Viking Plastics acquires automotive supplier Genesis Plastics and Engineering

Injection molding and assembly services provider Viking Plastics (Corry, PA) has announced the acquisition of Genesis Plastics and Engineering LLC (Scottsburg, IN), a supplier of automotive interiors, seating and custom injection molded products.

In a news release, Viking Plastics said that this acquisition adds to its current line of custom injection molded products and assemblies for the automotive, HVAC and industrial markets. This new partnership expands its expertise and customers, and incorporates Genesis’ capabilities to manufacture new tools, the company also noted.

Viking Plastics

Established in 1995, Genesis is IATF certified and shares Viking Plastics’ commitment to providing highly reliable products that accurately meet customer specifications. “Its commitment to quality, customer satisfaction and continuous improvement align with our values," said Viking Plastics President and CEO Kelly Goodsel. “This will allow us to deliver what our collective customers need. Our partnership will enable us to provide a wider range of quality products to our current customers and position us to better service new customers,” said Goodsel.

Viking Plastics’ multiple plants house more than 100 molding machines ranging in size from 50  to 720 tons. In-house capabilities include two-shot and insert molding, pad printing and automated assembly.

Founded in 1972, Viking Plastics is a portfolio company of Spell Capital. Viking purchased Kentucky Manufacturing & Technology in April 2017.

GE Healthcare to Stand on Its Own

GE Healthcare to Stand on Its Own

General Electric is shaking things up a bit by spinning out its healthcare division as a publicly-traded company. The move will allow GE to focus on aviation, power, and renewable energy.

GE Healthcare has long been a bright spot for its poor-performing parent company. In 2017, GE Healthcare brought in about $19 billion in revenue and posted five percent revenue growth and nine percent segment profit growth in the same year.

General Electric’s plans call for it to sell about 20% of the health business and spin off the rest to its shareholders. The spinout could be completed over the next year to 18 months. GE Healthcare provides medical imaging (including contrast agents), monitoring, biomanufacturing and cell therapy technology, leveraging deep digital, artificial intelligence and data analytics capabilities.

Most recently GE Healthcare said it was set to sell its Value-Based Care division to Veritas Capital for about $1.05 billion. The deal would help to create a leaner GE Healthcare that is more focused on its diagnostics and artificial intelligence offerings.

“GE Healthcare’s vision is to drive more individualized, precise and effective patient outcomes. As an independent global healthcare business, we will have greater flexibility to pursue future growth opportunities, react quickly to changes in the industry and invest in innovation. We will build on strong customer demand for integrated precision health solutions and great technology with digital and analytics capabilities as we enter our next chapter,” said Kieran Murphy, president and CEO of GE Healthcare.

Murphy will stay on to lead the healthcare division.

“Today marks an important milestone in General Electric’s history,” John Flannery, chairman and CEO of GE Healthcare. “We are aggressively driving forward as an aviation, power and renewable energy company—three highly complementary businesses poised for future growth. We will continue to improve our operations and balance sheet as we make GE simpler and stronger.”

Despite the healthcare division’s success, General Electric has gone through some tough times. Recently overseers of the Dow Jones kicked GE out of the index, because of the firm's poor performing stock. Shares of the company dropped 45% last year.

How AR Will Enhance the Smart Manufacturing Workforce

Futurist Brian Federal said AR could be a major disruptive force in manufacturing, particulary if a company like Magic Leap achieves its technical goals. (Image source: Magic Leap)

Is augmented reality (AR) the way forward for the manufacturing workforce?

The growing workforce gap being created as Baby Boomers retire, coupled with new advancements in automation, is sending disruptive waves through the manufacturing sector. New workers coming into the plant are faced with having to adapt to a new work environment of collaborative robots and machine learning-driven applications. At the same time, they have to maintain, or in some cases re-learn, the legacy knowledge that is being lost as older generations exit the workforce.

But can AR fill that gap? A panel at the recent Atlantic Manufacturing & Design Expo (ADM), “Workforce Integration in the New Age of Smart Manufacturing,” examined how the practice of hiring workers for the factory floor is going to evolve in the very near future. Advanced manufacturers are looking for operators and technicians with both traditional and newer skill sets. The challenge is how prospective workers can bridge this gap and how companies can help them.

AR's potential in factory training and education was among the most discussed trends among the panelists. David Iyoha, director of software solutions at Fortech LLC, discussed manufacturers' need to put systems in place to capture knowledge. Fellow panelist Bruce Lichorowic, president of Galen Robotics, stressed the crucial role that workforce education is going to play going forward.

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Plenty of companies, from large entities like Microsoft to smaller companies and even startups, are pointing AR toward the challenge of worker training. There are also plenty of reasons to be skeptical of companies like Magic Leap, that may be over-promising on what AR can deliver. But Brian Federal, a futurist with Prana Communications, told the ADM audience that AR will be “invaluable” on the shop floor, particularly if it can reach the level Magic Leap is seeking.

How disruptive will AR be to the workforce? Will it impact more industries than others? And how does AR fit in alongside other transformative smart manufacturing technologies, such as collaborative robots, AI, and additive manufacturing?

Watch the full panel, “Workforce Integration in the New Age of Smart Manufacturing,” below. And for more updates, be sure to follow Design News on Facebook.  

Chris Wiltz is a senior editor at Design News covering emerging technologies, including VR/AR, AI, and robotics.

Cheap and Efficient Organic Solar Cells May Be Possible, Thanks to New AI Tools

Organic photovoltaic (PV) cells are believed by some researchers to be the way forward for solar power, due to their use of inexpensive, lightweight materials and ease of production. However, it’s been difficult to find materials suitable for these cells with sufficiently high power-conversion efficiencies to rival the silicon-based commercial cells on the market today.

Researchers in Japan believe they may have found a way to solve this problem by using artificial intelligence (AI) to search for polymers that can perform well in organic PV cells, they said.

A team at Osaka University has used computational power to automate the search for well-matched solar materials, which could lead to vastly more efficient devices, they said in a recent press release from Osaka. “We have just constructed an AI-based predictor, and demonstrated how to use it for the design of a new polymer,” explained Akinori Saeki, one of the researchers on the work.

Organic solar cells created using AI
The graphic shows the exploration of new polymers for polymer solar cells using materials informatics. Researchers at Osaka University in Japan developed an artificial-intelligence predictor for finding polymers that are well-suited to creating highly efficient organic solar cells, such as perovskite cells. (Image source: Osaka University)

Random Forest

Organic PV cells depend on both the organic and the polymer layer to convert light into electricity. Traditionally, chemists have experimented with different combinations of these by trial-and-error, leading to a lot of wasted time and effort.

To expedite this process, the Osaka team gathered data on 1,200 organic PVs from about 500 studies. They then used Random Forest machine learning to build a model combining the band gap, molecular weight, and chemical structure of these previous OPVs—together with their power-conversion efficiency—to predict the efficiency of potential new devices. Random Forest is an ensemble learning method for classification, regression, and other tasks.

“A polymer for solar cell application is composed of a donor unit, an acceptor unit, a spacer, and alkyl chains,” Saeki explained to Design News. “Assuming 20 kinds of choices for each unit, the combinations exceed 1 million. It is hard to synthesize all of the combinations,” he added.

Even quantum chemical calculations cannot predict the solar-cell efficiency, because the efficiency is a result of complex factors such as film morphology, interface at p-type and n-type semiconductors, and solubility of the materials, he said.

Choosing Materials

To simplify combining the parameters and thus choosing materials, researchers manually collected about 1,000 experimental parameters—including efficiency, molecular weight, and electronic properties—from the literature and subjected them to machine learning with digitized chemical structures, Saeki said.

“Our AI allows for virtual screening of polymer structures and predicts the efficiency without experiments and simulation,” he explained. “Note that the accuracy is not perfect—around 20 percent to 50 percent. So, this AI can be used as a tool for rough screening.” The team published a paper on their work in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.

From their research, the team developed a new, previously untested polymer, and is working with private companies and other academic institutions to use the AI-based predictor to explore new materials for use in organic PVs, Saeki said.

“These days, organic solar cell [research] is behind the emerging perovskite solar cell, which was reported in 2012 and has efficiency now comparable to those of commercialized inorganic solar cells,” he said to Design News. “So, I strongly hope to revive an organic solar cell by finding a new, high-efficiency material.”

Elizabeth Montalbano is a freelance writer who has written about technology and culture for 20 years. She has lived and worked as a professional journalist in Phoenix, San Francisco, and New York City. In her free time, she enjoys surfing, traveling, music, yoga, and cooking. She currently resides in a village on the southwest coast of Portugal.


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Using a Brain-Computer Interface to Ease Epilepsy Seizures

Next Gen RNS System
The Next Gen RNS System developed to treat refractory epilepsy. Image courtesy of NeuroPace Inc.

Patients suffering from epilepsy may soon have a new device that could help treat seizures by preventing them altogether. NeuroPace Inc., a medical technology company based out of Silicon Valley, announced the launching of its flagship technology earlier this month, the next-gen RNS System. The company has spent years developing the technology as a means to treat refractory epilepsy, a condition that affects more than 1 million people in the United State alone.

The RNS system is a closed-loop, brain-responsive neurostimulation system that was designed to prevent epileptic seizures by stopping them at the source. The device uses a brain-computer interface that was designed to treat seizures by continuously monitoring brain waves in an effort to recognize each patient’s unique seizure onset fingerprint. This allows the device to continuously monitor the patient’s brain waves for signals of an impending seizure; it is equipped to automatically respond with imperceptible electric pulses that can prevent the seizure before it occurs.

“The launch of the next-gen RNS System is proof of our relentless focus on product innovation,” said NeuroPace CEO Frank Fischer. “According to the National Epilepsy Foundation, 1 in 26 Americans will develop epilepsy in their lifetime, with approximately 150,000 new cases of epilepsy diagnosed annually. An estimated 3 million Americans currently live with epilepsy, with one-third of those patients experiencing seizures despite taking epilepsy medication. The RNS System is a proven treatment option for individuals 18 years of age or older who have disabling partial onset seizures that are not controlled by medication.”

The system itself is composed of a programmable responsive neurostimulator and comes with leads that are placed in the seizure onset area. Patients can actually upload their brain activity data to the online Patient Data Management System (PDMS) where it can be reviewed by physicians who can personalize the individual therapy settings on the device for each patient. Unlike current antiepileptic drugs, the RNS system directly targets the seizure focus and improves seizure control without causing any stimulation side effects or neurocognitive deficits.

“The RNS system is the only treatment that provides us with a ‘window to the brain,’” Fischer said. “Long-term, ambulatory brain activity recordings can be used to optimize therapy and provide physicians with unprecedented insights into each patient’s unique seizure patterns.”

Approved by FDA in November of 2013, the RNS System began multicenter clinical trials in an attempt to demonstrate seizure reduction among 256 patients. Clinical trial data showed 30% of patients achieved a 90% or more seizure reduction, while 29% of patients had at least one period of 6 months or more without any reported seizures of any kind.

The company’s latest model aims to incorporate a bevy of new features that will enable patients to live their lives with fewer interruptions through optimized treatment. The longevity of the device has more than doubled from 3.9 to 8.4 years at medium stimulation settings, and the available memory has also doubled from 0.5 MB to 1.0 MB. The increase in data storage capacity will allow physicians to review a wider set of brain activity data, which will inevitably enable faster therapy optimization.

Fischer said that as the company moves forward with the device, he hopes that the technology can not only improve the lives of epilepsy patients, but eventually evolve to treat other disorders so that more people can begin to have the freedom of a life without seizures.

“Going forward we plan to continue to improve performance, enhance ease of use, and explore other applications of the unique chronic EEG data generated by the device,” he said. “In addition to treating epilepsy, responsive neurostimulation holds the promise of treating other disabling neurological, psychiatric, and chronic disorders that negatively impact the quality of life for millions of patients throughout the world.”