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Sensor Could Provide Forewarning of Asthma Attacks

By 2014, $2.6 trillion in global manufactured goods, or about 15% of total global output, will incorporate nanotechnology, according to the independent advisory firm Lux Research (New York City; www.luxresearchinc.com). One of the areas where the continued growth will be most apparent is in the healthcare sector. Nanotechnology research with implications for the medical device industry is progressing rapidly, and academic institutions and medical device firms continue to make strides in bridging the gap between research and commercialization. The University of California at Los Angeles has announced the launch of the California NanoSystems Institute (Los Angeles; www.cnsi.ucla.edu), created with the expressed purpose of fostering partnerships between industry and university researchers. Elsewhere in the world, a recently formed company in the United Kingdom, NanoCentral (www.nanocentral.eu), offers to advise and assist companies in implementing nanotechnology equipment and services within existing business models. In this feature, MPMN reports on several advancements in nanotechnology that have the potential to revolutionize medical product manufacturing in the years ahead. The innovations covered could have applications as varied as drug delivery, power supply, implantable device components, diagnosis, and detection.

SPECIAL FEATURE: EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

Sensor Could Provide Forewarning of Asthma Attacks
A sensor reacts to minute amounts of nitric oxide, a gas prevalent in the breath of asthmatics.

A recently developed nanotube sensor is reactive to minute amounts of nitric oxide, a gas prevalent in the breath of asthmatics, according to University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA) professors who developed the sensor. If fitted in a handheld device, the tiny component could allow users to remove the element of surprise from asthma attacks. In addition to detecting attacks early on, a device incorporating the sensor could provide a portable method for patients and their doctors to regularly monitor their symptoms and tailor treatment accordingly.

The sensor consists of a carbon nanotube, a sheet of graphite 100,000 times smaller than a human hair, and a coating made of a polyethylene imine polymer. Still in the early stages of development, the sensor could eventually offer unprecedented access to critical information when deployed in respiratory and biodetection devices. “The extreme thinness of nanotubes renders them extremely sensitive to small changes in their chemical environment,” says Alexander Star, the project’s lead researcher. “This quality makes nanotubes ideal for detection applications.”

The sensor theoretically would be cased in a handheld device that asthmatics blow into to determine the nitric oxide content of their breath. Gas levels spike as airways grow inflamed, a symptom of an impending asthma attack. High levels of nitric oxide—up to two-thirds more than normal—may precede an attack by up to three weeks, possibly earlier, depending on the asthma’s severity, according to Star.

Other advantages of the sensor include low power consumption and cost. “Although the design of the sensor is very sophisticated, the cost of carbon nanotubes can be quite inexpensive,” Star says. “And the handheld devices would be much less expensive than the bulky machines used today to detect nitric oxide levels.”

Because of their expense, current nitric oxide detecting machines are only available in outpatient clinics, making them suitable for diagnosis and for gauging the severity of asthma, but impractical for monitoring symptoms. A handheld device incorporating the sensor would be ideal for self-monitoring, says Star. “This invention could allow people with asthma to watch their nitric oxide levels as easily as people with diabetes check their blood sugar with handheld glucose monitors.”

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
www.pitt.edu

Copyright ©2008 Medical Product Manufacturing News
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